Mix the flour, baking soda, salt, cinnamon, ground cloves and allspice in a bowl.
Melt the butter in a pan. Finely grate the ginger, grate a little zest from the orange. Add both to the butter along with the sugar and maple syrup, stir until the sugar has dissolved. Remove the pan from the heat, allow to cool slightly. Add the butter mixture to the dry ingredients, quickly combine to form a dough, cover and chill for approx. 2 hrs.
Roll out the dough in batches between two sheets of baking paper to a thickness of approx. 4 mm. Use a round cutter (approx. 6 cm in diameter) to cut out circles, place on two baking trays lined with baking paper.
Approx. 6 mins. per tray in the centre of an oven preheated to 200°C. Remove from the oven, leave to cool completely on a rack.
Combine the egg whites with enough icing sugar to make a thick icing. Using a teaspoon, spread the icing on top of the biscuits. Place one marshmallow on each biscuit, use the decorating pen to draw the arms, eyes, nose, scarf and buttons.